Unseaworthiness: This cause of action is based upon vessel owner’s implied warranty that
a vessel is reasonably fit for its intended use. See  Commercial Mariners .

Product Liability: If someone is injured as a result of a defective product, recovery would be
based upon product liability theory. See Commercial Mariners .

If you were injured in the course of a commercial vessel or recreational boating accident,
call for a free and confidential consultation. If I am able to handle your injury case, there is
no fee unless I am successful.

Tim Akpinar Contact Information:





© February 2005 by Tim Akpinar - All Rights
Reserved - The contents of this website may
not be copied or transmitted without the prior
written consent of Tim Akpinar.
(718) 224-9824

250-02 Northern Blvd - Suite 200
Little Neck, New York 11363

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Maritime Law
Ocean Mariners - Commercial Fishermen - Tugboats - Sailboats - Yacht Crews - Riverboats - Divers - Jones Act
One of the most fundamental laws covering the the
Jones Act. On U.S. flag vessels, this affects
seamen, which includes  tugboat riverboat barge
crews, paid yacht crews, jack-up oil rig crews,
commercial divers, crews of deep sea ocean going
cargo ships, passenger ships, offshore vessels and
other seagoing employees. It also includes ferry
boat, excursion, and tour boat crews, water taxis
and other marine employees.

Recreational Boating Accidents covers claimants
injured on or by motorboats, sailboats, jet-skis,
waverunners and other personal watercraft,
windsurfers, kayaks, canoes, as owners, guests,
unpaid race crews, recreational divers, or

Commercial Divers, Longshoremen and Shipyard
Workers covers commercial divers, longshoremen,
mechanics, welders, harbor welders, harbor pilots,
and shore side employees. It also could include hard
hat, oil field and salvage (commercial) diving claims
not covered under the Jones Act.

General Overview of Claimants in Marine Injury Cases
If you were injured at sea, it’s likely that maritime
law will enter the picture. Your status aboard a
vessel will determine applicable law, depending on
whether you were a towboat engineer, tankerman,
commercial fishing boat mate, shore side welder,
passenger, commercial diver, or kayaker. Boating
accidents on navigable waters often involve
maritime law.

Jones Act: The Jones Act covers seamen injured as
a result of the employer’s negligence. Seaman
loosely means crew member. See Commercial
. Seaman could be a tugboat deckhand,
dinner cruise boat mate, commercial fisherman,
tanker captain, cruise ship steward, or megayacht

Recreational Boating Accidents: If someone is
injured in a pleasure boat accident, the action could
be based upon negligence. See Recreational
Boating Accidents

Longshoreman and Harbor Workers Compensation
Act: The LHWCA covers compensation and liability
for employees injured in the course of maritime
employment who are not seamen. Covered persons
include welders, mechanics, stevedores, harbor
pilots and non-seaman divers. See
Divers, Longshoremen and Shipyard Workers . This
page has links to the Defense Base Act and War
Hazards Compensation Act. These apply to an
employee injured on a military base or combat area
or war zone.
One of the oddest quirks of maritime law that an experienced maritime attorney might come
up against is limitation of liability. The City of New York played hardball with the plaintiffs in
the Staten Island Ferry accident of October 2003, playing the limitation card in an attempt to
limit personal injury and wrongful death awards. It wasn't successful though, largely due to
conclusions made by the National Transportation Safety Administraton. Tim covered this
arcane concept for the Association of Trial Lawyers of America, featured in the February 2006
issue of their journal,
Trial Magazine. Follow the link below to learn more and read the article
in its entirety. (reprinted with the permission of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America.
Andrew Barberi struck a pier on
October 15, 2003, killing 11
people, the passengers were
unaware of an arcane concept
of maritime law known as
limitation of liability. They soon
saw how a law meant to
protect shipowners during the
age of sail was invoked to
prevent them from achieving a
full and fair recovery for their

Under the Limitation of
Shipowners’ Liability Act of
1851, a shipowner may limit
liability for losses from
negligence or unseaworthiness

Read more.

Deafeating Limitation of
Liability in Maritime Law, by
Tim Akpinar, From the February
2006 issue of Trial magazine,
Posted with permission of Trial
(February 2006 Copyright The
Association of Trial Lawyers of
America. Limitation of liability
can arise in a collision with a
commercial fishing vessel as
well as a jet ski, personal
watercraft or waverunner
If someone is involved in
a maritime accident as a
Jones Act seaman
aboard a tugboat,
passenger ship, fishing
trawler or other
commercial vessel, or as
an injury plaintiff in a
recreational boating, jet
ski, waverunner, personal
watercraft, diving,
canoeing, kayaking, or
swimming accident, and
the case proceeds to
federal court under
maritime law, the injuries
and damages could be
litigated in one the
following Federal District

1st  District
Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode
Island and Puerto Rico

2nd District
Connecticut, New York,

3rd  District
Delaware, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Virgin

4th  District
Maryland, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Virginia,
West Virginia

5th District
Louisiana, Mississippi,

6th District
Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio,

Arkansas, Iowa,
Minnesota, Nebraska,
North Dakota, South

9th District
Alaska, Arizona,
California, Guam, Hawaii,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada,
Northern Mariana Islands,
Oregon, Washington

10th District
Colorado, Kansas, New
Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah,

11th District
Alabama, Florida, Georgia
District of Columbia
Maintenance & Cure are the
maritime law terms used to
describe economic damages in
the form of living expenses and
medical expenses. The U.S.
Supreme Court, in an opinion
written by Justice Clarence
Thomas, ruled that punitive
damages are available where an
employer would not pay
maintenance & cure. Read more
about the case & the decision,
When a vessel breaks loose from its mooring during a storm and collides with
another vessel, the result is usually a lawsuit. When the cruise ship Carnival
Triumph broke free during an April 2013 storm in Mobile, Alabama, it collided with
another vessel, resulting in a multimillion dollar lawsuit. S
ee Carnival Cruise
Line sues shipyard.
Click here to see article
Marine Officer -
Feb/Mar 05 Foreign
Seafarers of the Third
World, by Tim Akpinar,
which contrasts
conditionsfaced by foreign
seamen injured at sea with U.S.
seamen working aboard
commercial ships under the
U.S. flag. Some basic
differences include the absence
of laws such as the Jones Act,
Death on the High Seas Act, or
fair application of concepts
such as unseaworthiness,
negligence, compensation for
personal injury when someone
is injured at sea, and
maintenance and cure.
Mandatory Safety Exams will be required
for commercial fishing vessels operating
more than three (3) nautical miles
offshore. See
maritime law updates for
commercial fishing. These changes will
impact safety equipment and other
issues, such as survival craft. These
regulatory changes should enhance the
survivability of vessel crews following a
sinking or serious accident at sea.